Diabetes research,

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Modeling long-term diabetes and related complications in rats J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods.

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Mar-Apr ; Epub Nov Gyömrői út Electronic diabetes research erika. DOI: The aims of this study were to establish a model of long-term diabetes with sustained medium scale hyperglycemia and characterize the pathological changes detectable after 4months, with particular respect to dependence on the degree of hyperglycemia.

Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic CFY rats were subjected to four different insulin substitution protocols to achieve different levels of glycemic control Diabetic groups.

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Eyes were investigated by ophthalmoscopy, kidney function by urine analysis, and neuropathy by functional tests.

Retinal and renal morphological evaluations were performed by histology, immuno-histochemistry and electron microscopy.

Discussion: Diabetes research established a treatment protocol in rats enabling complex investigation of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy on a long-term period. Clearly hyperglycemic dependent parameters of these complications serve as good outcome measures for preclinical trials.

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Our results provide a useful basis for designing studies for testing preventative diabetes research as well as other translational medical research in this field. Keywords: Anterior segment neovascularization; Chronic model; Cold allodynia; Diabetic nephropathy; Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetic retinopathy; Drug development; Insulin implant; Preclinical model; Streptozotocin. Copyright © Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

It found that type 2 diabetes is associated with a higher risk of mortality in hospitalised COVID patients than type 1 diabetes. The combination of an older age and high C-reactive protein CRP was also linked to a higher risk of death. Younger people under 70 years old with chronic kidney disease, a common long-term complication of diabetes, also had a higher likelihood of dying. BMI, however, was not linked to survival.

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